All these layers were glued together and covered with birch bark. That caused problems with the succession, and the growing power of the provincial governors exacerbated matters. The Sinai and the Canaanites who hailed from the North-East; Internal strife caused by the rulers of the Nomes or provinces. By this time, many soldiers were actually derived from specific warrior castes, which in turn hints at a societal solution for a professional (or at least semi-professional) army. The spear was used in Egypt since the earliest times for hunting larger animals, such as lions.  Then, all the armies would come together under the Pharaoh to battle. Some of the longer self bows were strengthened at certain points by binding the wooden rod with cord. Obsidian was used for arrow tips because of its glass-like properties that allow it to achieve a finely honed and razor-sharp edge. Also, the mysterious Sea Peoples invaded the entire ancient Near East during this time. He led other military campaigns as far south as the Second Cataract in Nubia. The arid plains and deserts surrounding Egypt were inhabited by nomadic tribes who occasionally tried to raid or settle in the fertile Nile River valley. , Before the New Kingdom, the Egyptian military was mainly aquatic, and the high ranks were composed of elite middle-class Egyptians. ‘Horses will not willingly charge into massed ranks of infantry, always preferring to pull up and stop just short of their lines regardless of the intentions of the riders and handlers’ (Archer 4). The Egyptians had learned from their defeat by the Hyskos and reformed their military. Warfare was an indispensable function of the social order in ancient Egypt in order for people were to survive the predatory behavior of others. Because of its greater weight, the spear was better at penetration than the arrow, but in a region where armour consisted mostly of shields, this was only a slight advantage. They used chariots and composite bows, and the Egyptian soldiers soon adopted these for their own use. The experienced archer chose his weapon with care. , Chariots are best defined as horsedrawn vehicles with two spoked wheels that require their drivers and passengers to stand whilst in motion’ (Archer 1). Towards the end, Assyria arose as the feared enemy power. The size of the arrows were .801 to .851 meters or 31.5 to 33.5 inches. Each boat had a designated section, generally under the main deck, where the slave rowers would sit. The Egyptians then improved the design of the chariot to suit their own requirements. Bronze-Tipped Spear and Shield. Ancient Egypt Warfare. That made the Egyptian chariots lighter and faster than those of other major powers in the Middle East. The chariot aided in many battles, they could be used in a multitude of ways from, a glorified product mover or transportation for soldiers to be moved to and from the battle fields in a ‘battle taxi’ type manner and a variety of other ways (Archer 2). A vital activity of any king was warfare in ancient Egypt. Now of course, beyond just th… Because military service was not considered prestigious, the army was mostly made up of lower-class men, who could not afford to train in other jobs. The Hittites hailed from further northeast than had been previously encountered. The spear was appreciated enough to be depicted in the hands of Ramesses III killing a Libyan. } General warfare weapons were a mix of ranged and melee weapons. The New Kingdom (1570 BC – 1070 BC) was a time of disruptive change for Egypt’s military forces. This is where Kopesh Fighters are trained. It relied on the impact the missile made and like most impact weapons was relegated to play a subsidiary role. These were preferred to pebbles because of their greater weight which made them more effective. So a lot of the time Egypt was at peace. In the 12th dynasty (1991 - 1802 BC), pharaohs began maintaining standing armies. The garrison troops overseer ran an entire garrison. In its form of javelin (throwing spears) it was replaced early on by the bow and arrow. The Ancient Egyptians were known to use siege warfare weapons such as battering rams and siege towers. These bows, combined with the war chariot, enabled the Egyptian army to attack quickly and from a distance. Egyptian Shields: Various kind of Egyptian shields. The history of ancient Egypt is divided into three kingdoms and two intermediate periods. After the Hyksos took control, many Egyptians fled to Thebes, where they eventually began to oppose the Hyksos rule.. Ancient Egyptian Warfare and Weapons. 337-40, "Egypt in the Late Period (ca. 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